Biography of Heinrich Böll / Биография Генриха Бёлля

1902 Born on February 27 in Salinas, California.
1914-1918 World War I
1919 Graduates from Salinas High School
1919-1925 Attends classes at Stanford University, but never graduates. Intermittingly employed as a sales clerk, farm laborer, ranch hand, and factory worker
1925 Moves to New York City and briefly works as a newspaper reporter
and a construction worker
1926 Returns to California
1929 Publication of first novel, Cup of Gold. Black Tuesday, (U.S. Stock
Market crash), contributes to onset of The Great Depression
1930 Marries Carol Henning
1932 The Pastures of Heaven
1933 To a God Unknown
1934 Gathers information on farm labor unions and interviews labor
organizer in Seaside
1935 Tortilla Flat, first popular success, about Monterey’s paisanos
1936  In Dubious Battle, about striking workers
1937 Of Mice and Men (play-novelette) and The Red Pony. Of Mice and Men (play version) opens in New York and runs for 207 performances.
1938 Their Blood is Strong, non-fiction, uncovers the migrant labor problem in California
1939 The Grapes of Wrath receives great popular acclaim; also meets with criticism for epiction of Oklahoma migrants and California growers, as well as for its alleged “vulgar” language and socialist bias. Of Mice and Men (film version) released
1939-1945 World War II
1940 The Grapes of Wrath (film version) released; stars Henry Fonda.  Steinbeck receives the National Book Award and the Pulitzer Prize for The Grapes of Wrath. Documentary/ethnofiction film, The Forgotten Village, exposes living conditions in rural Mexico
 1941 Separates from wife, Carol Henning
 1942  The Moon is Down and play version opens in New York; Tortilla Flat (film version) released; Bombs Away published
1943 The Moon is Down (film version). Works as New York Herald Tribune war correspondent in Europe and North Africa. Finalizes divorce with Henning; marries Gwyn Conger
1944 First son, Thom, born
1945 Cannery Row
1945-1991 The Cold War
1946  Second son, John IV, born
1947 The Wayward Bus and The Pearl
1948 A Russian Journal published. Divorced by Conger. Elected to the
American Academy of Arts and Letters
1950 Burning Bright and play version opens in New York. Marries third wife,
Elaine Anderson Scott
1950-1953 The Korean War
1952 Viva Zapata! and East of Eden
1954 Sweet Thursday (sequel to Cannery Row)
1955 Pipe Dream, a Rogers and Hammerstein musical based on Sweet Thursday, opens in New York
1957 The Short Reign of Pippin IV and The Wayward Bus (film)
1958 Once There Was War
1960-1975 The Vietnam War (American involvement)
1961 The Winter of Our Discontent
1962 Travels With Charley. Receives The Nobel Prize in Literature
1964 Presented with U.S. Medal of Freedom by President Lyndon B. Johnson
1966 America and Americans
1966-1967 Extensive visit to South Vietnam (fact-finding), and to visit son John IV, drafted by the U.S. Army in 1965. John IV later serves as a war correspondant for the U.S. Department of Defense
1968 John Steinbeck dies of arteriosclerosis in New York City
1975 Steinbeck: A Life in Letters (selected correspondence), edited by his wife, Elaine, and Robert Wallsten
  1979  U.S. Commemorative stamp issued on what would have been Steinbeck’s
75th birthday
 1988  Steppenwolf Theatre Company (Chicago, IL) produces Frank Galati’s
play adaptation of The Grapes of Wrath
 1990  The Grapes of Wrath premieres on Broadway at the Cort Theatre with
Gary Sinise as Tom Joad, Terry Kinney as Jim Casy, and Lois Smith as Ma.
Runs for 188 performances and wins the Tony Award for Best Play;
Galati wins Tony Award for Best Direction of a Play.
 1992 New Of Mice and Men (film version) released; directed by Gary Sinise;
stars Gary Sinise and John Malkovich